Changes and Adjustments

What changes have been introduced in Globasa since its publication in July, 2019?

Phase 1

Grammar

Adj/adv words modifying other adj/adv words: adj/adv → adj/adv + -li

Rationale

Using adj/adv words to modifying other adj/adv words creates ambiguity:

dayo bale uma - big strong horse or greatly (very) strong horse

Example

  • perfeto, syahe tofa - perfect, black hair
  • perfetoli syahe tofa - perfectly black hair

very: dayodaylimuldayoli or dayli

Rationale

This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

as... as...: egal... kupul... → denli... kuli...

Rationale

This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

there is/are: is → hay

Rationale

The use of is for there is/are seems confusing, and gives is too many meanings. The introduction of the root word hay adds clarity.

passive voice: be- → (optionally) be or be-

Rationale

Separating the particle be- makes it easier to identify it. The prefix be- is still optional with verbs, but obligatory with noun and adjective compounds: belubiyen (loved one).

However, be- as a prefix might ultimately be easier to process, so this experimental change may be switched back to the original be- in all cases.

fe: optional fe in many instances → optional fe limited to correlatives, sentence initial expressions with -ya nouns, and certain common time phrases (ledyen, etc.)

Rationale

Having too many different instances where fe is optional may become confusing and difficult to determine when fe must be applied and when it's optional.

infinitive: optional na → obligatory na

Rationale

Optional na creates an unacceptable ambiguity.

Optional: Mi suki oko - I like the eye. vs I like to see.

Obligatory: Mi suki oko - I like the eye. Mi suki na oko - I like to see.

any/ever: he → he-

Rationale

The separate word he creates some three-word correlatives which seem too disjointed:

he ban loka - anywhere vs. the updated heban loka - anywhere

other: alteralo

Rationale

Better consistency in the form of correlatives (see next point).

Addition of sama- as correlative

Rationale

Sama as the opposite of alo, for symmetry in the correlatives.

-ible, -able: be-X-bilbe-X-bil or short form -bel

Rationale

The affix structure be-X-bil is a bit long and cumbersome for being so common.

Example

invisible: nobeokobil (invisible) → nookobel

Root Words

Phonology

Globasa updated its phonology in September, 2019 in order to introduce more recognizability to international words without making the phonology much more complicated.

The consonant -h is no longer allowed in word final position. The consonants allowed in word-final position are now the following nine: -f, -l, -m, -n, -r, -s, -w-, -x, -y.

Within a word, any and all single consonants are now allowed. The following root words have been adjusted as a result:

morning: sobah → soba
fox: rubah → rubarubahe
advice: nasih → nasiha
rest: istirah → istraharahatu
black: syah → syahe
cough: koh(hoh) → kof(kof)
magnet: mahneto → magneto
technology: tehno → tekno
sex: sexo → sekso
word: lexi → leksikoleksi
galaxy: galaxi → galaksi
select, choose: seleci → seleksiseleti
instructions: istruci → istruksiistruksyon
action: aci → aksyon
function, work: funci → funsyon

Double Vowels Discarded: Double vowels were also discarded in the phonology.

achoo: acuu → acu
wolf: auu → ?

Avoiding artificial compromises: The following words were adjusted in order to avoid a compromise between languages that is too artificial.

tree: dreho → drevo

Arabic final vowel -u

dear: azize → azizu
lesson: darse → darsu
house: bayte → baytu
obedience: etate → etatu
romantic love: exke → exku
drown: garka → garaku
hour: sate → satu
fall: sokute → sokutu
thing: xeye → xeyu

Avoiding conflict: The following words were adjusted to avoid a conflict with another root word or phrase

gram: gram → gramo
enough, sufficient: kafi → kufi
room: kamer → kamar→ kamera
rabbit/hare: hargox → kargux
long: longo → lungo
machine: maxin → maxina
replacement, substitution: daytay → tayday

Increasing recognizability

theater: teatra → teatro
young: june → juni
virus: viru → virus
crisis: krisi → krisis
basket: baske → baskete
ticket: tike → tikete
enjoyment, pleasure: furha → furaha
date: tarhe → tarihe
fantasy: fantas → fantasi
window: janel → janela

Clipped Roots

reputation: reputasyon → reputa
recommend: rekomenda → rekomen

Greater ease in pronounciation

culture: kultur → kultura (kulturali)
nature: natur → natura (naturali)

long/short → short

car: (awto)mobil → mobil
bus: (awto)bus → bus

Correction

hard, rigid, stiff: xahte → sakate

Different Root Word

color: rangi → kolor (-lor)
situation → halular (halu - circumstance)
gray: gris → hwese
coast: sahil → kosta
search, look for: xunjaw → xerca
accept: aceta → swikara
interpret: interpreta → tafasir

Greater Mandarin representation in the UDHR

The following words were not in the original dictionary but were added in the process of translating the UDHR. The root words were changed according to the new Methodology for Word Selection for greater international balance by giving Mandarin a greater representation.

commerce: komerci → xangyo
widow: vidwe → gwafu
vote: voto → tupyo
compensation/compensate: kompensa → bocan

Dropped root word in favor of affixed word

street, road: kuca → dolo
highway, freeway: dolo → daydolo

Dropped affixed word in favor of root word

school: xwexidom, alimdom → eskol

Narrowing down meaning with addition of root word

know: jixi → jixi, kone

Addition of vowels or elimination of codas

abyas --> abyasa (rehearse, practice)
amir --> amiru (command)
amus --> amusa (amuse)
anxos --> ansyoso (anxious)
bahar --> bahari (sea)
banan --> banana (banana)
bander --> bandera (flag)
botel --> botela (bottle)
brun --> bruno (brown)
byer --> bira (beer)
darje --> daraje (degree)
deklar --> deklara (declare, declaration)
din --> dini (religion)
disen --> diseno (design)
dyen --> dina (day)
ekonom --> ekonomi (economy)
enfas --> enfasi (emphasis)
eskas --> eskaso (scarce, scarcely, barely)
esker --> esketi (skirt)
especif --> especifi (especific)
estar --> estare (star)
estil --> estilo (style)
estrober --> estroberi (strawberry)
exklus --> exklusi (exclude)
figur --> figura (form, figure)
flex --> fleksi (bend)
garbi --> garabi (west)
haruf --> harufi (letter of alphabet)
hatar --> hatari (danger)
hazun --> hazuni (sad)
hikay --> hikaye (story)
hukim --> hukimu (judge, judgment)
inklus --> inklusi (include)
ix --> ixu (adult)
jabre --> jabare (jaw)
jayza --> jayeza (prize, reward)
jyani --> jeni (suggest)
kalam --> kalamu (pen)
kamar --> kamera (room)
kamis --> kamisa (shirt)
katin --> katina (difficult)
kijaw --> kijawi (green)
klas --> klase (class, category)
komentar --> komenta (comment)
kompar --> kompara (compare)
korban --> korbani (victim)
mader --> maderi (matter)
mahar --> mahara (skill)
makal --> makale (article in publication)
malki --> malaki (property)
masal --> masele (issue, matter, affair)
maxor --> maxori (most)
medis --> medici (medicate, medicine)
mekan --> mekani (mechanism)
minor --> minori (the minority of)
mixtur --> mixtura (mix)
mosim --> mosimu (season)
mwes --> mesi (month)
nervos --> nervoso (nervous)
nigal --> nigalu (swallow)
ofis --> ofisi (office)
ordinar --> ordinari (ordinary)
palas --> palasi (palace)
plas --> plasi (put, place)
poem --> poema (poem)
polis --> polisi (police)
precis --> preciso (precise, exact)
prefer --> preferi
produs --> produsi (produce)
proces --> proceso (process)
purpur --> purpuro (purple)
razon --> rasona (reason)
regul --> regula (rule)
reklam --> reklama (advertisement)
sebul --> cebula (onion)
sigar --> sigaro (cigar)
simul --> simula (simulate)
sukar --> sukeri (sugar)
swikar --> swikara (accept)
tahmin --> tahmini (evaluate)
talju --> taluji (snow)
umum --> umumi (general)
utar --> utara (north)
vyayam --> vyayama (exercise)
xekay --> xekaye (complain)

Numbers

doy --> dua
tin --> tiga
car --> care
lim --> lima
sis --> sisa
sef --> sabe
walo --> oco
naw --> nue

(Ordinal numbers with the suffix -yum.)

Greater Japanese Influence in East-Asian Words (simpler pronunciation).

celyan --> calyo (vehicle) consan --> cosan (praise) jifan --> cibo (fat) jontay --> jotay (state, condition) yanxin --> yoxin (conscience) xanho --> sogo (reciprocal, each other) xangyo --> xogyo (commerce)

Phase 2

Additions:

  • The preposition tas (to, for) as the indirect object marker; the preposition cel now used only to show movement
  • Adjective/adverb dacu (approximately, around, about); semantics of preposition wey narrowed down
  • Preposition cis (on this side of) as the opposite of tras
  • Prefix nen- (un-)
  • Preposition nenhar (without) replaced by wal
  • Verb Mood dupul

ji... ji... --> iji.... ji
or... or... --> oro... or
nor... nor... --> noro... nor
kam... kam... --> kama... kam

The preposition fe optional only in expressions of time

Semantic Adjustments:

  • Preposition por: in exchange "for" instead as "per"
  • Semantic adjustment for laye
  • -je and -ya
  • pel

Sentence initial expressions:

  • Elimination of fe _____-ya expressions in favor of simple adjective/adverbs (with obligatory pause after comma)
  • Elimination of to in certain expressions: unyum to --> unyum; xaja to --> xaja (with obligatory pause after comma)\

Infinitive phrases used after prepositions

Adverbs of degree and manner: -li --> -mo

go --> go-

Free word order for hay sentences

The use of su as a genitive (possessive) particle for all nouns

The copula is only for linking subject with noun phrase, infinitive phrase or clause

Prepositional Verbs: Prepositions turned into verbs using -ya instead of using a copula\ The word feya as an optional copula used for linking subject to prepositional phrase

Obligatory direct object marker el with relative pronouns

denmo... kumo... --> (denmo...) kumo...
denkwanti... kumo... --> (denkwanti...) kukwanti...
dennumer... kumo... --> (dennumer...) kunumer...

Omission of le and xa within clause rather than within sentence

abilli (possible/maybe) --> bilpul --> bilbil
maxbil (probable, probably) --> meypul --> meymey
maximbil (most likely) --> daymeypul --> daymeymey
rili (again) --> riri

Correlatives:

  • one-word correlatives - keloka, kewatu, etc.
  • ke vs ku- correlatives: ku- correlatives used in subordinate clauses; ke correlatives in all other cases
  • Elimination of -li correlatives
  • Elimination of short forms kwan (some quantity of) and mer (several, a few) in favor of bankwanti and bannumer.
  • he- --> he

Phase 3

Conflict with double letters:

  • lidi --> lide
  • iman --> imanu

Verb Transitivity
Adjusted from intransitive to transitive: harka, esto, atex, evolu (develop), rota, gulun

bilbil --> bilpul meymey --> daybilpul
daymeymey --> maxim daybilpul
yur- --> ami-
termo- --> termoli
garme --> termopul
bardi --> bardipul
-kras --> -krasi
krasi --> krasia
-graf --> -grafi
grafi --> grafia
fobi --> hawfu, -fobi/fobia
ologi --> logia leksi --> lexi
taslim --> taslum
narko --> dava
loga --> loga, pala
-bel --> -ble

Adjectives in derived words

Adjective Compounds with -mo

New suffix -xi

Zero copula predicative prepositional phrases

Numerals in compounds

Numerical system for days of the week replaced by astronomical system

Preposition di made archaic

Two-consonant codas in proper nouns

Phase 4

Names of the oceans

Preservation of SVO word order in all clauses by replacing relative pronouns (kute/kuto) with particle hu as relative clause marker and introducing interrogative clauses with ki and using ku-

Addition of metric numerals/prefixes

Copula is as predicate marker for phrases other than verb phrases